Having the mental and/or physical condition to engage in one or more major life activities (e.g., seeing, hearing, speaking, walking, breathing, performing manual tasks, learning or caring for oneself). (ADL, Education Glossary)
Someone who speaks out on behalf of or takes actions that are supportive of someone who is targeted by bias or bullying, either themselves or someone else.
Elementary school version: Someone who helps or stands up for someone who is being bullied or the target of bias. (ADL, Education Glossary)
The marginalization and/or oppression of people who are transgender and/or non-binary (identifying as neither a man nor a woman) based on the belief that cisgender (gender identity that corresponds with the sex one was assigned at birth) is the norm. (Often called transphobia to describe a fear of anyone who is perceived to be transgender. Other related, specific terms include cissexism, transmisogyny and binarism.) (ADL, Education Glossary)
An anti-racist is someone who is supporting an antiracist policy through their actions or expressing antiracist ideas. This includes the expression of ideas that racial groups are equals and do not need developing, and supporting policies that reduce racial inequity.
SOURCE: Ibram X. Kendi, How To Be An Antiracist, Random House, 2019.
The marginalization and/or oppression of people who are Jewish based on the belief in stereotypes and myths about Jewish people, Judaism and Israel. (ADL, Education Glossary)
An inclination or preference, either for or against an individual or group, that interferes with impartial judgment.
Elementary school version: A preference, either for or against an individual or group, that affects fair judgment. (ADL, Education Glossary)
An unreasonable or irrational attachment to negative stereotypes and prejudices.
Elementary school version: Prejudice and/or discrimination against a person or group based on stereotypes. (ADL, Education Glossary)
A person who is emotionally, physically and/or romantically attracted to some people of more than one gender. (ADL, Education Glossary)
Repeated actions or threats of action directed toward a person by one or more people who have (or are perceived to have) more power or status than their target in order to cause fear, distress or harm. Bullying can be physical, verbal, psychological or any combination of these three. Bullying behaviors can include name-calling, obscene gesturing, malicious teasing, rumors, slander, social exclusion, damaging a person’s belongings, threats and physical violence.
Elementary school version: When a person or a group behaves in ways—on purpose and over and over—that make someone feel hurt, afraid or embarrassed. (ADL, Education Glossary)
Someone who sees bias or bullying happening and does not say or do anything.
The patterns of daily life learned consciously and unconsciously by a group of people. These patterns can be seen in language, governing practices, arts, customs, holiday celebrations, food, religion, relationships, family roles, communication style, clothing, etc.
Elementary school version: The patterns of daily life that can be seen in language, arts, customs, holiday celebrations, food, religion, beliefs/values, communication style, music, clothing and more that a group of people share. (ADL, Education Glossary)
When people use specific elements of a culture (e.g., ideas, symbols, images, clothing) that misrepresents and/or disrespects the culture of that marginalized group of people. It usually happens when one group exploits the culture of another group, often with little understanding of the group’s history, experience and traditions. (ADL, Education Glossary)
The intentional and repeated mistreatment of others through the use of technology, such as computers, cell phones and other electronic devices. Cyberbullying includes, but is not limited to, sending mean, hurtful or threatening messages or images about another person; posting sensitive, private information about another person for the purpose of hurting or embarrassing the person; and pretending to be someone else in order to make that person look bad and/or to intentionally exclude someone from an online group.
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (DEI)
Broadly outlines institutional policies, procedures and practices to foster safety, respect, belonging, access and representation for all. These initiatives are designed to create an inclusive environment for all and address inequities for individuals with marginalized identities.
A mental or physical condition that restricts an individual's ability to engage in one or more major life activities (e.g., seeing, hearing, speaking, walking, communicating, sensing, breathing, performing manual tasks, learning, working or caring for oneself). (ADL, Education Glossary)
Discrimination: The denial of justice, resources and fair treatment of individuals and groups (often based on social identity), through employment, education, housing, banking, political rights, etc. (ADL, Education Glossary)
Elementary school version: Unfair treatment of one person or group of people because of the person or group's identity (e.g., race, gender, ability, religion, culture, etc.). Discrimination is an action that can come from prejudice. (ADL, Education Glossary)
The presence of variety within a group. The population of the United States is made up of people belonging to a diversity of groups characterized by culture, race, ethnicity, nationality, gender, sexual orientation, ability, etc. (ADL, Education Glossary)
Educational equity means raising the achievement of all students while (1) narrowing the gaps between the lowest and highest performing students and (2) eliminating the racial predictability and disproportionality of which student groups occupy the highest and lowest achievement categories. (PPS Racial Equity Policy narrative)
Treating everyone the same way, often while assuming that everyone also starts out on equal footing or with the same opportunities. (ADL, Education Glossary)
Working toward fair outcomes for people or groups by treating them in ways that address their unique advantages or barriers. (ADL, Education Glossary)
The socially-defined “rules” and roles for men and women in a society. The attitudes, customs and values associated with gender are socially constructed; however, individuals develop their gender identities in two primary ways: through an innate sense of their own identity and through their life experiences and interactions with others. Dominant western society generally defines gender as a binary system—men and women—but many cultures define gender as more fluid and existing along a continuum. (ADL, Education Glossary)
Refers to how people communicate their gender to oneself and others through appearance, behavior, dress, etc. (ADL, Education Glossary)
Relates to a person’s internal sense of their own gender. Since gender identity is internal, one’s gender identity is not necessarily visible to others. (ADL, Education Glossary)
The set of roles and behaviors expected of people based on gender assigned at birth. (ADL, Education Glossary)
An extreme dislike for something, someone or a group. Hate that is based on an aspect of someone’s identity (e.g., race, religion, sex, gender expression or identity, ability, sexual orientation, etc.) can result in interpersonal bias, discrimination, hate incidents, hate crimes and/or involvement in an organized hate group. (ADL, Education Glossary)
The qualities, beliefs, etc. that make a particular person or group different from others. (ADL, Education Glossary)
Refers to any form of bullying related to the characteristics considered unique to a person’s identity, such as their race, religion, sexual orientation or physical appearance.
Elementary school version: When someone is bullied based on an aspect of who they are or are perceived to be: their identity. (ADL, Education Glossary)
A collection of beliefs, ideas and/or values that are not based on factual evidence and form the basis of economic, sociological or political policy. (ADL, Education Glossary)
The unconscious attitudes and stereotypes and unintentional actions (positive or negative) toward members of a group merely because of their membership in that group. (ADL, Education Glossary)
The action or state of including or of being included within a group or structure. Inclusion involves authentic and empowered participation and a true sense of belonging. (In K-12 learning environments, inclusion can sometimes also refer to the practice of integrating students with disabilities into the classroom setting.) (ADL, Education Glossary)
A lack of fairness or justice; unfair and avoidable differences in treatment or experience. (ADL, Education Glossary) (ADL, Education Glossary)
A situation in which the rights of a person or a group of people are ignored, disrespected or discriminated against. (ADL, Education Glossary)
An unjust situation or condition when some people have more rights or better opportunities than other people. Elementary school version: An unfair situation when some people have more rights or better opportunities than other people. (ADL, Education Glossary)
The examination of overlapping and connected social systems that compound oppression for individuals who belong to multiple marginalized social groups based on their race, gender, class, gender identity, religion, sexual orientation, disability, etc. (ADL, Education Glossary)
A cognitive impairment in comprehension or in using language, spoken or written, that manifests itself in a person’s ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations (e.g. Dyslexia, Dysnomia, Dysgraphia). The term does not include persons who have learning difficulties that are primarily the result of intellectual disability, emotional disability, or environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage. (ADL, Education Glossary)
Acronym that groups lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/questioning individuals into one group based on their common experience as targets of heterosexism and transphobia and their common, yet complex, struggle for sexual and gender freedom. This term is generally considered a more inclusive and affirming descriptor than the more limited “gay” or the outdated “homosexual.” (ADL, Education Glossary)
The treatment of a person, group or concept as secondary, unimportant, inferior or abnormal compared with those who hold more power in society. (ADL, Education Glossary)
The everyday slights, indignities, put-downs and insults that people of color, women, LGBTQ populations and other marginalized people experience in their day-to-day interactions. Microaggressions can appear to be compliments but often contain a “metacommunication” or hidden insult to the target group. Microaggressions are often outside the level of conscious awareness of the people who say them, which means they can be unintentional. Microaggressions may be communicated verbally and/or nonverbally. (ADL, Education Glossary)
Means many or multiple cultures. The United States is multicultural because its population consists of people from many different cultures.
Elementary school version: Including many different cultures. (ADL, Education Glossary)
The use of language to defame, demean or degrade individuals or groups.
Elementary school version: Using words to hurt or be mean to someone or a group. (ADL, Education Glossary)
Solely refers to a persons citizenship by origin, birth, or naturalization. (ADL, Education Glossary)
Aspects of communication, such as gestures and facial expressions, which do not involve speaking but can also include nonverbal aspects of speech (tone and volume of voice, etc.). (ADL, Education Glossary)
A system of mistreatment, exploitation and abuse of a marginalized group(s) for the social, economic or political benefit of a dominant group(s). This happens within a social hierarchy where people are ranked according to status, often based on aspects of social identity. (ADL, Education Glossary)
A premature judgment or belief formed about a person, group or concept before gaining sufficient knowledge or by selectively disregarding facts. (ADL, Education Glossary)
Elementary school version: Judging or having an idea about someone or a group of people before you actually know them. Prejudice is often directed toward people in a certain identity group (race, religion, gender, etc.). (ADL, Education Glossary)
The unearned and often unrecognized advantages, benefits or rights conferred upon people based on their membership in a dominant group (e.g., white people, heterosexual people, men, people without disabilities, etc.) beyond what is commonly experienced by members of the marginalized group. (ADL, Education Glossary)
Refers to the categories into which society places individuals on the basis of physical characteristics (such as skin color, hair type, facial form and eye shape). Though many believe that race is determined by biology, it is now widely accepted that this classification system was in fact created for social and political reasons. There are actually more genetic and biological differences within the racial groups defined by society than between different groups. (ADL, Education Glossary)
An organized system of beliefs, observances, rituals and rules used to worship a god or group of gods. (ADL, Education Glossary)
The marginalization and/or oppression of people who belong to one or more religious groups or no religious group based on the belief in a correct or sanctioned faith system. (ADL, Education Glossary)
A set of conditions and principles that ensure every person has equitable economic, political and social rights, access and opportunities. (ADL, Education Glossary)
The capacity to control, access and/or influence people, institutions and resources. (ADL, Education Glossary)
An individual’s or family’s economic and social position in relation to others, as measured by factors such as income, wealth and occupation. (ADL, Education Glossary)
An oversimplified generalization about a person or group of people without regard for individual differences.
Elementary school version: The false idea that all members of a group are the same and think and behave in the same way. (ADL, Education Glossary)
A combination of systems, institutions and factors that advantage white people and for people of color, cause widespread harm and disadvantages in access and opportunity. One person or even one group of people did not create systemic racism, rather it: (1) is grounded in the history of our laws and institutions which were created on a foundation of white supremacy; (2) exists in the institutions and policies that advantage white people and disadvantage people of color; and (3) takes places in interpersonal communication and behavior (e.g., slurs, bullying, offensive language) that maintains and supports systemic inequities and systemic racism. (ADL, Education Glossary)
An implicit association, whether about people, places, or situations, which are often based on mistaken, inaccurate, or incomplete information and include the personal histories we bring to the situation. (ADL, Education Glossary)
Someone who recognizes when something is wrong and acts to make it right. When an upstander sees or hears about someone being bullied, they speak up. Being an upstander is being a hero: we are standing up for what is right and doing our best to help support and protect someone who is being hurt. In many ways, this is another word for being socially responsible. (The Bully Project)